Dillingham Commission (1907–1910)
The United States Immigration Commission, known as the "Dillingham Commission," was formed in response to growing political concern about immigration in the United States. Under the leadership of Vermont Senator William Paul Dillingham, the joint House-Senate commission included US Senators Henry Cabot Lodge and Asbury Latimer; US Representatives Benjamin Howell, William Bennett, and John Burnett; and Charles Neill of the US Department of Labor, Jeremiah Jenks of Cornell University, and William Wheeler, the California Commissioner of Immigration.
The Dillingham Commission, which began its work in 1907, had concluded by 1911 that immigration from southern and eastern Europe posed a serious threat to American society and culture and should therefore be greatly reduced. The commission's overall findings provided the rationale for the politically and economically inspired immigration restriction acts of the 1920s, including the Emergency Quota Act of 1921, which favored immigration from northern and western Europe by restricting the annual number of immigrants from any given country to 3 percent of the total number of people from that country living in the United States in 1910. The movement for immigration restriction that the Dillingham Commission helped to stimulate culminated in the National Origins Formula of 1929, which capped national immigration at 150,000 annually and barred Asian immigration altogether.