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Josephine Clara Goldmark (1877–1950)

Josephine Clara Goldmark, Fatigue and Efficiency: a Study in Industry. New York : Survey Associates, 1913.
Josephine Clara Goldmark, Fatigue and
Efficiency: a Study in Industry. New York:
Survey Associates, 1913.

A researcher, author, and legal expert, Josephine Goldmark contributed substantially to the movement to reform the working conditions of native-born and immigrant workers. Raised in Brooklyn, New York, and educated at Bryn Mawr College, Goldmark became the chairman of the committee on labor laws for the National Consumers League (NCL) and subsequently the publications secretary of the league. Due to her reputation for being an NCL expert on labor conditions, Goldmark served on many non-NCL labor investigations, and, in 1911, she served on the committee investigating the Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire in New York City.

In 1912, the Russell Sage Foundation published one of her most important works, Fatigue and Efficiency, in which she demonstrated that excessive working hours not only hurt workers physically, but also impaired their productivity. The Russell Sage Foundation, a philanthropic organization that analyzed social problems and campaigned for social reforms, was strongly concerned with the connection between immigration and urban social problems, such as poverty, overcrowding, and labor unrest. As a result, much of Goldmark's work for the Russell Sage Foundation, from Fatigue and Efficiency to her later service as the assistant director of social research, directly concerned the interrelationship of immigration and labor relations.

During the First World War, in addition to continuing to work for the Russell Sage Foundation, Goldmark served as the executive secretary of the Committee on Women in Industry. As manager of the Women's Service Section of the US Railroad Administration (1918–1920), she investigated the working conditions of women and children nationwide. Goldmark also served as an expert in the research department at American Telephone and Telegraph on women's employment and health problems (1919–1939), and was vice-chair of the New York City Child Labor Commission. She died in White Plains, New York, in 1950.

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